Smulsky J.J. The Main Mistakes of Modern Science//Space, Time, Gravitation. Materials of VIII International Scientific Conference: August, 16-20, 2004, Saint Petersburg: "Tessa" -2005. - Pp. 285 - 294. (In Russian).

THE MAIN MISTAKES OF MODERN SCIENCE

The Report at VIII International Scientific Conference: Space, Time and Gravitation.
August, 16-20, 2004, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

J.J.Smulsky
Institute cryosphere the Earth of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 625000,
Tyumen, P.O.Box 1230, Russia.

1. THE CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD AND WHAT THE REAL WORLD IS

Let's address to Homer. Achilles throws a javelin in Trojan's Aeneas, son of Anhis, which, having pierced periphery of a shield, sticks into the ground. Achilles with surprise exclaims:
"Gods! By my eyes I see a great miracle:
Spear in front of me lies on the ground; but do not see the man,
Against which has thrown, which I desired to overthrow.
Truly and this Anhisid to deities Olympic is kind!"
The reason of rescue from inevitable, in opinion of Achilles, destruction of Aeneas the Achilles sees in operation of gods. It is not a metaphor or Homer's literary reception. Reading ancient authors, we see, that the gods controlled the winds and a rain, gave us light of the Sun and of the Moon, directed people and supervised their activities. Now we consider these ideas naive. We know what air is and what its structure is, what the reasons of air velocity are and when air becomes wind or even a terrible hurricane. Our knowledge is so reliable, that we undoubtedly consider mistaken the ancient people's vision of the world.
In this connection there are some questions. Are true our conceptions of the world? Which of them will not be found naive and therefore rejected by our descendants? Are there some true conceptions among our ones, which will never be rejected? Can we find out our mistaken conceptions? If we may, let's reveal them and we shall reject, and we shall not lead up themselves to a shame before the future generations.
There is a surrounding world round us. It is the sky, the stars, the trees, our house, the subjects in it and so on. These objects of world around are changed and influence each on other. We investigate them, explain the reasons of objects change, in this way we create the world understanding. If the ancient people involved the gods' power or demons' ones for the explanations the world, we explain everything with the help of forces, fields, ether, energy, space-time etc. As we can see, the explanations and the understanding of the world constantly change, but the world practically remains changeless.

2. THE UNHYPOTHETICAL DESCRIPTION OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS

2.1. Interaction of the motionless electrified bodies and magnets

The modern physical understanding of the world is based on the Theory of Relativity. The approach of the description of electromagnetic interactions lays in a basis of it. This approach consists that the field, the space and time, which express interaction of bodies, are changed and deformed in dependence on relative velocity of movement of interacting bodies. Whether so it is?
Let's consider how the magnetic and electrified bodies interact, being based on those laws of electromagnetism, which are received as a result of measurements. The motionless electrified bodies with charges q1 and q2 and the magnets with magnetic charges M1 and M2 (see Fig. 1, a, b) act one on other with force according to expressions:
   (1)
Which name Colombos' laws for electrostatic and magnetic interactions.
These forces are received as a result of measurements. Under action of force the body will start movement and will get velocity v. There is a question: the moving charged body q2 (see Fig. 1, a) will act on motionless body with the same force (1) or force will be another? Unfortunately, in electrodynamics of 18 and 19 centuries for an explanation of interactions the concept a field and its determining values: scalar and vector potential , intensities and , inductions and other values was entered. And the problem of force of interaction till now has remained open. However all measurements of interactions of bodies one on other were carried out. Let's not use a field and its values, and, using of measurements, we shall define force of interaction between the moving electrified bodies.
Fig. 2. Than the interaction of motionless and moving bodies is defined?
With this purpose we shall consider interaction of the electrified body q and magnet M. If they rest (see Fig. 2, a), then one body do not acts on other, i.e. the force of interaction F=0. If the body q (see Fig. 2, b) moves relatively magnet M we understand it that according to Biot-Savart-Laplace's law in the point of the magnet presence the magnetic field is induced. The magnetic field acts on a magnet with force F2. We shall reject this interpretation of action, and we shall leave only result: the moving charge acts on magnet with force, which is defined by the mentioned law
 F2 = Biot-Savart-Laplace's law.  (2)
If the magnet M moves relatively a charge q (see Fig. 2, c) we understand it that according to the Faraday's law of induction in the point of body q the electric field is induced. The electric field acts on a charge q with force F3. Again we shall reject this interpretation of action, and we shall leave only its result: the moving magnet M acts on the electrified body q with force, which is determined by the above named law:
 F3 = the Faraday's law of induction.  (3)
So, three these experimental facts testify, that a motionless charge and they interact when move from one on other. From here, the important conclusion follows: interaction of a charge and a magnet depends on their velocity of relative movement.

2.2 The Interaction Of The Electrified Bodies Moving One Relatively Other

Now we shall return to the answer to a question about interaction of the moving electrified bodies. If the charged body q2 moves with velocity v relatively motionless q1 (see Fig. 3) that the three above-considered measurements define their interaction. The first component of force F1 is caused by own interaction of charged bodies F1e. Due to movement of a charge q2 there is an action on magnet F2, which is situated at the point of charge q1. It is the second component. As the distance from the charge q2 up to this imagined magnet changes, the action on it changes also. The change of this action we shall present the movement of the magnet, which is disposing on the charge q2 place. So, the third component F3 will present action of a moving magnet on a charge q1. Additional actions F2 and F3 depend on velocity of movement and as we already mentioned, it is written as experimental laws Biot-Savart-Laplace () and induction of Faraday (). For infinitesimal sizes of a charge and a magnet and at distributed on coordinates the characteristics of action these experimental laws are accordingly: second () Maxwell's equations. After exception intensity H from them it is received differential equation for interaction force of the moving charge q2 on motionless q1 as:
 (4)
where is speed of light in the considered media, and is density of a charge, which is defined from the condition .
Fig. 3. How the force between moving bodies are defined?
As a result of the decision of this differential equation we have received the following expression for force
 (5)
where .
This force describes the all electromagnetic interactions. And as it is seen, the force depends on velocity of movement. If the velocity comes nearer to speed of light ( ), the force tends to zero. Naturally, the movement of the charged bodies does not lead to the change of space, time and mass as it is accepted in the Theory of Relativity. These positions of the Theory of Relativity are erroneous and should be rejected.

3. MISTAKES OF THE BASES OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

By the end of 19 centuries in physics the explanation of the world phenomena was formed with assistance by ether and the field. It was supposed, that waves of light are propagated in ether. The smallest particles of substance consist of ether. The charged bodies and magnets create around of themselves the appropriate fields, which then act on other bodies. Became tempting the idea to present gravitational action as a field. Then all interactions in a nature will express the same as fields. It will be possible to create the united theory of a field and thus as it was supposed, all picture of the world will be constructed.
It is necessary to pay earnest heed. Physicists-theorists aspired to create, construct a picture of the world, i.e. to explain for themselves the behavior of the objects of world around. However, for other people this explanation became understanding. The world around began to be perceived and interpreted by people in invented images. As these images were represented as real ones, the subsequent generations perceived them as objects of world around. So, we shall note that ether and the field are the concepts entered for an explanation of the world. These are dreamed up objects.
Let's continue consideration of gravitational action. In the Special Theory of Relativity the electromagnetic interaction of bodies moving one relatively other was explained by changing of space-time dependences. In this connection there was a logic contradiction as it was not required space-time transformations for an explanation of gravitational interaction. The desire to create a uniform picture of the world was so strong, that final speed of gravitation propagation, equal to speed of light was accepted. By analogy to the description of electromagnetic interaction the description of gravitational interaction relatively moving bodies was constructed. In addition, this description of gravitational interaction was submitted in the depersonalized four-dimensional curvilinear coordinates. So there was the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) as the new images completely imagined on the basis of mathematical concepts. These imagined objects of GTR are do not like to one of the objects of world around. Therefore this science for the person became non-comparable to world around. Many positions of GTR are not joined to that, which the man sees in world around. GTR is full of logic contradictions. I do not doubt that contradictions would be less, if founders of the Theory of Relativity as ancient men the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions would explain by actions of gods.

For confirmation of GTR the three possible phenomena were involved: perihelion precession of Mercury, a deviation of light and change its frequency at passage near gravitating body. I think that it is necessary to be guided by an unshakable rule: the ungrounded statement should not even be checked on confirmation. The unique "basis" for GTR is a desire to create the uniform theory of a field. But the world around is not accommodated to man's desires.
We may not follow above to the formulated rule and we may consider this desire as the basis. The following statement the GTR is that the speed of gravitation propagation is equal to light speed. This idea was continuously checked from the moment of the formulation by Newton of the universal law gravitation. And each time it was rejected by more exact solving of the equations or taking into account of additional action not taken before into account body. The most difficult calculation of gravitational interaction - the calculation of the Moon movement was executed. On its basis Laplace in 1787 has come to a conclusion, if gravitation speed is final it should exceed speed of light in 100 million times.
Apparently, I have walked on all chain of statements GTR, and have come to a conclusion: any of them has no the bases. The analysis of some these statements is given in my works and, at desire, everyone may be convinced of it independently.

4. THE IMAGINED COMPREHENSIONS OF A MACROCOSM

So, as for as the Special Theory of Relativity the concepts and positions of GTR are erroneous and should be rejected. We shall consider most popular of them.
Gravitational waves. They follow from GTR. If force of gravitation between two bodies would depend on velocity, such waves similar electromagnetic, might exist. But the bases for this purpose are not present. Therefore the gravitational waves do not exist. I call the researchers, almost half-centuries engaged in their detection, to try to understand the above analysis and to refuse from searching of what does not exist.
The closed and open universe, spatial "wormholes", transition through zero-hyperspace etc. These imagined objects are caused GTR. As already I have noted, GTR are formed by two positions: 1) gravitation speed is equal to speed of light; 2) the interaction and movements is considered in four-dimensional curvilinear coordinates. The identification of curvilinear coordinates with some substance also has caused appearance of the above-mentioned imagined objects. Here I shall note that the paraphrasing of the GTR interactions in rectilinear Cartesian three-dimensional coordinates will not result to appearance of these objects.
So, such universes, "wormholes" and zero of hyperspace are not present in the world around. They need to be thrown out from scientific use and to be as more soon neglected. Their existence in household use is fraught with psychological illnesses and traumas.
"Black holes". It is illogical construction of GTR. The essence of this imagined object consists in the following. So as the body has departed the Earth on infinity, its velocity, according to the Newton's law of gravitation, should be not less than 11.2 km/sec, and from the Sun - 500 km/sec. It is possible to imagine body with mass and radius at which escaping velocity will be equal to speed of light: c = 300000 km/sec. Body with such parameters have been named the "black hole". It is supposed, that light from such body cannot leave to the far observer, and therefore this body will been looked as a black hole on a roof of heaven.
The concept of the "black hole" is offered in frameworks of GTR. Here again there is a logic mistake. At approach of body velocity to the speed of light the force of action on it follows to zero (in interpretation of the Theory of Relativity: the mass follows to infinity). Therefore the body with light velocity will not be slowed down and will leave the body, which escaping velocity, according to the Newton's law of gravitation, is equal to speed of light. That is, within the framework of GTR the "black holes" are in principle impossible. If they were really found out, it would confirm the Newton's law of gravitation.
So, the bases for proposing of concepts of "black hole" are not presented. To astrophysicists, which occupy of searching of "black hole", I advise to take into account these arguments and to direct their endeavor on studying of real properties of new found out objects.
The expanding Universe and Big Bang. The object, for example the galaxy, is more distanced from our Earth, the smaller frequency has its spectrum of light. It is spoken there is "reddening" of light with increasing of distance up to its source. It is known, that at movement of a source of light its frequency changes according to the Doppler's formula. If the source leaves the receiver there is a reddening of light. Therefore at an explanation of the reddening of light of far galaxies by the Doppler effect it is follows that we are in the center from which in all directions Galaxies leave. The conclusion about the expanding Universe and as consequence, that at some moment of time the Universe was collected in one point and the Big Bang has resulted in its expansion, follows from here.
As we see, the concepts of the expanding universe and Big Bang directly do not follow from GTR. However, due to the usual method of GTR of studying of the world as proposing of hypotheses and constructions on them explanations of the world, there was possible an appearance of these paradoxical designs.
The expanding Universe and Big Bang contradict many our knowledge of the world. We shall stop on one of contradictions. As bodies are attracted to each other, then at removing from each other their relative velocities are decreased. This interaction of bodies can be described by mechanical energy E. It is equal to the sum of kinetic energyT and potential energy P. At increase of the distance between bodies their potential energy is increased, and kinetic due to reduction of bodies' velocity is decreased. The increase The expanding Universe and Big Bang. The object, for example the galaxy, is more distanced from our Earth, the smaller frequency has its spectrum of light. It is spoken there is "reddening" of light with increasing of distance up to its source. It is known, that at movement of a source of light its frequency changes according to the Doppler's formula. If the source leaves the receiver there is a reddening of light. Therefore at an explanation of the reddening of light of far galaxies by the Doppler effect it is follows that we are in the centre from which in all directions Galaxies leave. The conclusion about the expanding Universe and as consequence, that at some moment of time the Universe was collected in one point and the Big Bang has resulted in its expansion, follows from here.
As we see, the concepts of the expanding universe and Big Bang directly do not follow from GTR. However, due to the usual method of GTR of studying of the world as proposing of hypotheses and constructions on them explanations of the world, there was possible an appearance of these paradoxical designs.
The expanding Universe and Big Bang contradict many our knowledge of the world. We shall stop on one of contradictions. As bodies are attracted to each other, then at removing from each other their relative velocities are decreased. This interaction of bodies can be described by mechanical energy E. It is equal to the sum of kinetic energyT and potential energy P. At increase of the distance between bodies their potential energy is increased, and kinetic due to reduction of bodies' velocity is decreased. The increase P and decrease T occurs so, that full mechanical energy remains constant
E=P+T  (6)
This position, the law of conservation of mechanical energy, is a basis of our civilization. All engineering, the heavenly mechanics, astronautics etc. are based on this law.
At interpretation of a reddening of light by Doppler effect it is received that with removing of object its velocity grows. Therefore, the galaxies located on the big distances have the big both kinetic and potential energy, i.e. their full mechanical energy with removing from the Earth grows. Thus, in the extending universe there is a continuous increase of mechanical energy.
If scientists did not have sample as the paradoxical Theory of Relativity, they would act absolutely in another way: "As the increase of mechanical energy in the closed system is impossible, the reddening of light of far galaxies Doppler effect does not explained", - to such conclusion would come scientists. And for past 70-80 years other explanation of the phenomenon "reddening of light" would be found.

5. THE CREATION OF IMAGINED OBJECTS INSTEAD OF STUDYING WORLD AROUND IS THE MAIN MISTAKE OF MODERN SCIENCE.

So, the extending Universe and Big Bang there are erroneous conceptions about the world of modern science. We have stopped on the objects created within the framework of the Theory of Relativity. However, on methodology of the Theory of Relativity the quantum mechanics, the theory of a nucleus, the theory of elementary particles and modern astrophysics were constructed. In their frameworks the many imagined objects were created, which are accepted as objects of world around. By these objects the explanation as micro- and a macrocosm is constructed. These objects do not exist, and a modern physical picture of the world is a fruit of human imagination.
I think many with me will agree that an explanation of the world by contemporaries of Homer by the actions of gods is more attractive. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hephaestus et. for us are more nice than the ether, a field, space-time, Big Bang, the captivated quark etc. Actions of gods we may predict as people have created them on the similarity. The behaviour of the created modern physical objects in any logic frameworks is not stacked. To not amaze our descendants with the naivety, let's more soon get rid of such fantastic explanation of the world.

REFERENCES

1. Smulsky J.J. The Theory of Interaction. - Novosibirsk: Publishing house of Novosibirsk University, Scientific Publishing Center of United Institute of Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999 -293 p. (In Russian).
2. http://www.smul1.newmail.ru/.