The chapter from the book: Smulsky, J.J. The Theory of Interaction. - Ekaterinburg, Russia: Publishing house "Cultural Information Bank", 2004. - 304 p. (In English).



The present book is devoted to the theory of interaction. What is a theory? There are theories of the ship, plane, of metalwork business and there is a physical theory, for example the Theory of Relativity, Quantum Theory. In the first three theories the principles and methods of fulfilment of work are described: building of the ship and plane, production of details, assembly of items. These theories differ from practice because they are used in the last one. For example, the airplane or the ship is created, the mechanic takes a file and in according with the theory saws with it a detail.

And what is the physical theory today? It is something other. In the modern physical theory the initial hypothesises are accepted and the picture of the world is created on them. So, in the Theory of Relativity (TR) on the base of principle of a relativity and principle of a limiting velocity it is constructed the world, in which space, time and mass depend on a relative velocity of movement. Adding a hypothesis about the light velocity of gravity and to the principles substituting algebraic mathematics for geometric have led to the General Theory of Relativity (GTR), where the world is curved four-dimensional space-time. Thus, the process of development of the physical theory is the process of creation of the world.

So, there are two varieties of the theories, there are two method of its understanding. One is the description of considered objects: properties of nature, receptions and methods of human activity, etc. And the other is the process of creation of the world. We will understand the Theory of Interaction as the first kind of the theory. There the calculation methods of interactions will be described. Traditionally these problems were considered by mechanics. With emerging of the electrodynamics, TR, the nuclear physics, the theory of elementary particles, the quantum mechanics, and other areas of modern physics, the interactions have become the subject of the research of new sciences and have exceeded the limits of mechanics. Hereinafter they should return to its bosom. At the given stage it is expedient to determine the whole area of interactions as a separate science - the Theory of Interaction, underlying its being in common with the different sections of physics.

So, there are two varieties of the theories, there are two method of its understanding. One is the description of considered objects: properties of nature, receptions and methods of human activity, etc. And the other is the process of creation of the world. We will understand the Theory of Interaction as the first kind of the theory. There the calculation methods of interactions will be described. Traditionally these problems were considered by mechanics. With emerging of the electrodynamics, TR, the nuclear physics, the theory of elementary particles, the quantum mechanics, and other areas of modern physics, the interactions have become the subject of the research of new sciences and have exceeded the limits of mechanics. Hereinafter they should return to its bosom. At the given stage it is expedient to determine the whole area of interactions as a separate science - the Theory of Interaction, underlying its being in common with the different sections of physics.


Everything that surrounding us what we constantly deal with can be divided into two areas. First, the world around: the sky, stars, trees, our house, subjects in it etc, which does not depend on our discourse. The second area is our description of the world around, its reflection in one's mind, its understanding. It is contained in the books, is studied at school, is presented in our consciousness. If the world around we cannot be changed by the reasonings, our understanding of the world constantly varies. For example, earlier man imagined that the Earth is the centre of the universe and the firmament rotates round the Earth. Now we know, that the Earth rotates round the axis, moves round the Sun, the Sun makes movement round the centre of the Galaxy, and the last one makes movement at interaction with other galaxies. However there is a mass of other submissions, which our generations will find by fallacies, and the understanding of the world will be changed by a radical image. Besides even methods of submission of the world vary. So, if in the ancient time the world was represented as clear images: gods, elements, ground, light, ether, etc., now it is represented as mathematical objects: wave functions, singularities, solitons, strings, levels of energy, energy-momentum tensors etc.

As we see, the description of the world can essentially differ from the world. But nevertheless there are some receptions of the description, which give practically constant knowledge of it. We know duration of a year in days and day in hours, we know height of mountains and depth of the seas, we know temperature of water freezing and temperature of steel melting. We are sure in this knowledge. It is based on comparison of objects properties. Let's dwell on it in more details.


We begin with selecting the certain properties, characterizing the objects of the world around. For example, all objects change. The man is born a child, grows, turns to the young man, becomes mature, then ages and dies. During the human life other changes happen. Every day Sun moves on a firmament, a day changes a night, phases of Moon, seasons of a year are changed too. Many of changes are repeated and are cyclical, others are unique - emerging a supernew star, collision of the Levi-Shumeker to the Jupiter. Properties of a change and movement characterise all objects of the world around.

To define a measure of a change of object the man compares this change to some standard change. During the human history the change of different objects was selected as standard: cyclical change of a day and night, change of phases of Moon, change of year seasons, change of generations, change of dynasties, drain of water or sand from capacities, repeating heart beats etc. The magnitude of a change is determined in the results of comparing the object change with the standard change. It expresses in an amount of standard changes or in an amount of their parts and is called time. For example, change of the man, i.e. his life, passes on the average during 70 revolutions of the Earth round the Sun that is identical to an amount of cycles of season changes. There are some results of a comparison of changes: duration, gap of time, instant etc., which are synonyms or update features of changes. The gap of time designates an amount of the cycles of a standard change equivalent to a considered change of the object. And the instant of a considered change designates binding it to the certain cycle of a standard change.

Depending on choice of the measurement standard the same change will be expressed by different magnitude. For example, the age of an oak is equal to 350 years or 5 human lifes. During human activity the system of the measurement standards of changes was created: second, minute, hour, the day, year etc. and it is established the accurate correspondences between them. In the results of comparison of changes of objects with standard changes we received knowledge of the world: the turtle lives 300 years, the sequoia - 5000 years, and the Earth exists 5 billions years. This knowledge will never become fallacious. They can undergo some quantitative changes caused by several reasons. At first, the process of a comparison afterwards can be executed with a greater accuracy. For example, at first the duration of a year was determined in 365 days, but after many years it was updated and now within five significant figures makes 365.25 days. Secondly, the changes of an investigated object or measurement standard can depend on different circumstances. At unfavorable vital conditions the duration of a person's life can not be 70, but 35 years and even less. And the pendular watch, which is transferred in a point with the other acceleration of gravitation, or spring ones - in a location with other temperature, will show other duration of a change. Thirdly, the changes also change. In accordance with wear the movement of mechanical watch changed. With increase of amount of the Earth revolutions round the Sun the duration of a year in days changed. Therefore the results of a comparison of changes should be indicated to circumstances, which they depend on, and to a moment of a comparison. Making extrapolations of it in the future or the past you must conduct additional researches into change of changes of investigated object and standard ones and to correct results of a comparison. For example, the age of the Earth of 5 billion years concerns to present movement of the Earth round the Sun. Probably, from the beginning of his emerging the Earth has made 100 billions of revolutions round the Sun, or probably 1 billion. It is possible, that 2 billions of revolutions ago there was no Earth, but there was a lens-shaped diffuse cloud. As we see, the careful study by a method of a comparison can open to us great knowledge of the world. And if we take into account circumstances of a comparison, such description of the world will remain valid so long as they will not be changed or there will be no circumstance, which we did not take into account before.


The second property of the world around, which a man most frequently deals with, is magnitude of objects. Being compared one object is found to be less or more than the other. So, a finger pin is less than a stop, the stop is less than a hand (up to a cubit joint), hand is less than a man, the man is less than a tree. Many from the recounted objects were selected as the measurement standards: feet, elbow, step (in Russia). The magnitude of an object is determined in the results of comparing it with the measurement standard and expresses by an amount of the measurement standards or their shares. For example, the magnitude of a man is equalled to 6 ft. Now a large part of mankind uses specially created measurement standard of magnitude or length - the platinum - iridium beam of a x-shape section stored in Sevre (France) at International office of measures. The magnitude of a beam at the temperature of 0oC between two marked primes on it is called meter. Thus, the magnitude of objects both in macro -, and in a microcosms is expressed by amounts or shares of meter.

The magnitude of objects, as well as their change, depends on many circumstances: for example, temperature, pressure etc. Standard meter is made of such material, which in some range of temperature does not change the magnitude. However the change of temperature in a greater range or realization of measurements on the special conditions is necessary for taking into account the definition of objects magnitude.

The magnitude of one man can be more than the other in a direction from the heels up to a head, it is more than the third one in a direction of shoulders and more than the fourth one in a direction of a back - stomach. It is peculiar to other objects, i.e. three kinds of magnitude in three mutually perpendicular directions are inherent to them. However for their measurement the same measurement standard is used. For want of consideration of two bodies it is necessary to define the magnitude of a gap between them. The gap, as well as the magnitude of object, places in three mutually perpendicular directions. The magnitudes of gaps between objects are measured by the same measurement standard of length. Objects and gaps between them will form their container, which is called space.

There are many varieties of measures of magnitude of the objects: a size, length, breadth, height, depth, distance etc. All of them are received comparing the magnitude of an object with the same measurement standard of magnitude. The size of the object is the result of comparison of object magnitude with the magnitude of the measurement standard. Length is the greatest size of an object, breadth is average size, as a rule in a horizontal plane. Depth is size of an object on a vertical downwards. A distance between objects is a size of gap between them. There are a number of properties of objects: square, volume, and form, which are determined by a combination of sizes of the object.

In the results of a comparison of magnitude of objects we find out a distance between bodies and cities, lengths of the rivers, height of mountains, square of countries, diameter of the Earth, distance up to stars. Many sciences have appeared due to a measurement of object magnitudes: geography, geometry, astronomy etc. Apparently, the mass of knowledge obtained in the results of a comparison of object magnitudes is the largest. The magnitude is a main property of the object. So long as we do not know it reliably, we doubt of existence of an object. For example, the absence of knowledge about magnitudes of elementary particles in a modern Physics calls a doubt in their existence.


Except a changeability and magnitude there are many other properties of the world around: warmth, light, sound etc. For their description the man also has entered the measurement standards, as a result of comparing properties are determined in degrees of temperature, amount of candles of luminosity, decibels of loudness etc. It allows determining properties of objects to determine influence of one property to the other: for example, the influence of the body temperature on its luminosity, length of a string on a tonality of a sound, temperature and pressure on gas volume. As a result the man finds dependencies between properties. Such approach is created all the description areas of behaviour of nature objects, for example, thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics etc.

Hereinafter they select more complicated properties, which are a combination of simple ones. Other properties, on the contrary, are detailed and appear dependent from the earlier entered magnitudes. So there is a system of the description of the world around, where the magnitudes of properties are determined by a comparison with the measurement standards and the dependencies between properties of objects as dependencies between magnitudes are established.

Thus knowledge about objects of the world around obtained in this way allows to predict their behaviour, allows to be guided among them, to reconstruct their separate stages or even allows to construct such combinations of the phenomena, which did not happen in the world. For example, the man has created objects, which have overcome a terrestrial attraction and went out in space. In this process the results of human operations will correspond to intentions as accurately, as the properties of objects were compared with properties of the measurement standards. For want of it, naturally, the conditions of comparison should be satisfied.

In the represented process of receiving knowledge of a nature the hypothesis and the suppositions about mechanisms of the phenomena are not considered. The picture of the world is not created on them. Here the world around is studied, is compared and is measured. And here it is necessary to understand the theory as the description of object properties of nature and description methods of human activity and their results.

The usual system of the unhypothetic description is created by mankind during millenniums and depends on many factors. Every man studies it on separate elements and never fully learns the whole system. He, as a rule, does not participate in revealing of new properties of the world and introduction of the new measurement standards. He has an impression that the measures of properties represent some world, which exists irrespective of him, exists objectively and eternally. He imagines, that there is a time, in which all events develop; there is a space, in which all objects of the world around are placed. As the results of such submission the man has questions: what is time? Is it any essence? Can it be discrete? Or is it turns to energy as assumed N.A. Kozyrev, and maybe, to space? The similar questions occur concerning space. Is it any essence? Is it material? Is it curved or rectilinearly and isotropic? Are two parallel direct lines intersected in it or are not intersected? Maybe they are intersected, and maybe are not intersected. Let's accept at first one paradigm, and then the other. These and similar hypothesises and doubts capture people, if they lose submission, where the world around, and where its description.

Entered by the man the measures of properties: space - for magnitude of objects, time - for their variability etc. are the description of the world around. This description could be different. Other properties could be chosen, other measurement standards could be entered. For example, the magnitude of the object can be characterized by capacity or volume, the description of interactions can be characterized by energy and force, the heat at the description of thermal processes can be characterized by entropy and energy. The methods of the description are changed in time. Among the different peoples the changeability of objects and their magnitude was determined differently in different times. Something, which today is considered as space and time, early was represented by the other. The ancient people had fabulous images (gods, titaniums, heroes, asurs, devas; their area of dwelling - hell, paradise and other worlds) alongside with the actual people and geographical objects. The description of other properties changed as well. It is necessary to remember and at researching always need to wonder whether it is the world around or it's description. For example, what ether, substance, consciousness, spirit, mass, field, energy, force, charge, electron, meson, neutrino, photon, graviton, soliton, planet, star, galaxy, black hole, neutron star, Sannikov Land, Antarctic Continent are. Are these the description of the world around or its objects?

When we become to deal with some strange, we wonder what this is and how it is functioned. However not all questions are pertinent. We can ask about the object of the world around, what parts it consists of, what are its properties are. We can ask questions to the description, how we have defined it, what circumstances were, how it depends on them. The answers will add the unhypothetic description of the world around. It will be objective knowledge of nature, which further will not be discarded by descendants.

People often say that it is impossible to understand the world around without hypothesises and they consider that accepted in the beginning guesses and suppositions are checked up and confirmed, but the unconfirmed ones are thrown. Hypothesises, which will be agreed by the observable phenomena, remain.

The operational analysis of a human brain and process of thinking shows, that it is self-deception. The man has a temptation to be influenced by a bright hypothesis. It is possible to follow a hypothesis at once arises at the man in case, when all circumstances of problems are not clarified. To follow to a at once, and for clearing up of circumstances the years can be required. But the experienced expert will not afford to take a great interest in a hypothesis. He will continue complicated and hard work on study of object, its properties, and influence on them of other objects and circumstances. As the results he will achieve such understanding of features of object, that can foresee and to describe them, not attracting hypothesises.